الأوراق العلمية


عرضالصفحاتعنوان الورقة +الملخصر.م
من 1 ـــ الي 3
الملخص

It is a difficult time to become a physician in the modern world. Although, our therapeutic armamentarium has never been greater, the pressures on the practice of medicine seem to have increased even more. Physicians talk about ‘the coming medical apocalypse’ ask whether we are ‘helpless’ or whether ‘... being a physician is still fun’? Scholarly research is undertaken to measure the degree of discontent and dissatisfaction with the practice of medicine. Part of the problem lies in the tangle of conflicting messages physicians regularly hear. Although societal measures of health are improving, the incidence of medical mistakes is said to be unacceptably high. Malpractice litigation is said to target ‘bad’ physicians and to be a necessary adjunct to the regulatory and professional discipline, yet nearly one in five doctors reports a malpractice claim annually, and one-third to one-half of high-risk specialists face a claim every year. Are they all bad doctors? Plaintiff attorneys say they carefully screen malpractice claim before filing, yet 70-80% of these claims are still found to be without merit. Therefore, it is not surprising that the physician ‘angst’ is high. Washburn says it plainly enough ‘Ask any clinician: it is getting harder and harder to enjoy practicing medicine’. More than one-third says they would probably not choose to enter medical school again. Although 84% of woman physicians in the United States express satisfaction with their career, 31% say they might not choose to be a physician again.

1
من 4 ـــ الي 11
2
من 12 ـــ الي 18
الملخص

Hemodialysis is one of the renal replacement therapies, besides peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation. Although hemodialysis can improve morbidity and mortality in renal patients, it has many complications that occur during the dialysis sessions and/or as long term use of hemodialysis. Hypotension, hypoglycemia, electrolyte disturbances, disequilibrium syndrome, hypocalcaemia etc are common complications occur during dialysis. In long-term dialysis, there are complications as amyloidosis, bone disease, endocrine disturbances, infection, cardiovascular complications, vascular access and nutrition complication. Important long-term hemodialysis complications will be reviewed in this article.

3
من 19 ـــ الي 25
4
من 26 ـــ الي 37
الملخص

The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of interrelated metabolic risk factors that appear to promote the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These risk factors include abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia. 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) catalyzes the interconversion of glucocorticoids through the activity of two isozymes: type 1 (11beta-HSD1) and type 2 (11beta-HSD2). 11beta-HSD1 converts inactive glucocorticoid to the active form, whereas 11beta-HSD2 converts active glucocorticoid to the inactive form. Glucocorticoids play a pivotal role in regulating fat metabolism, function and distribution. Evidence has accumulated that enzyme activity of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1), which regenerates active glucocorticoids from inactive forms and plays a central role in regulating intracellular glucocorticoid concentration, is commonly elevated in fat depots from obese individuals. . This suggests a role for local glucocorticoid reactivation in obesity and the Metabolic Syndrome. 11beta-HSD1 knockout mice resist visceral fat accumulation and insulin resistance even on a high-fat diet. In summary, 11beta-HSD1 is a promising pharmaceutical target for the treatment of the Metabolic Syndrome. Animal studies and pharmacological experiments suggest further unrelated target areas, for example improvement of cognitive function and treatment of glaucoma, osteoporosis due to the role of glucocorticoids and cellular activation by 11 beta HSD1 in these pathologies

5
من 38 ـــ الي 47
6
من 48 ـــ الي 50
الملخص

We evaluated the diagnostic performance of microscopical examination of staining techniques (modified Ziehl – Neelsen and Auramine – Rhodamine) and coproantigen enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (copro-ELISA) for cryptosporidiosis diagnosis. Copro-ELISA appeared to be most sensitive than staining techniques. The commercial copro-ELISA and Auramine - Rhodamine proved to be valuable diagnostic tools for Cryptosporidium infection.

7
من 51 ـــ الي 56
8
من 57 ـــ الي 61
الملخص

Prospectively the quantitative relationship between deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and acute pulmonary embolism (PE). patients were clinically suspected of having venous thrombo-embolic disease underwent combined CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Patients presented with clinical signs of DVT and positive ultrasonography, but there was no clinical sign of PE (Group 1). Patients were presented with clinical signs of PE and positive CTPA (Group 2). In conclusion, although PE occured in a majority of patients with DVT. Venous thromboembolic disease comprises OF pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT).1–12 A patient may present with either of these conditions, or both, and may not always exhibit the signs of one condition. This is particularly concerning with silent PE, where the risk of death increases with the presence of coexisting pulmonary disease, right heart failure to compensate for pulmonary hypertension, and embolic recurrences (which come from the lower limb veins in 90% of cases, and which further increase pulmonary arterial obstruction).13 In patients clinically suspected of having PE, two imaging approaches were recommended: firstly investigating the lower limb veins8, 9, 11 or the pulmonary arteries.3,5,10,14 If DVT or PE is found with either investigation, the presence of the alternative condition is often simply assumed and no further investigation is conducted. Patients are then treated with anticoagulation therapy in order to prevent growth of DVT and/or PE recurrence.

9
من 62 ـــ الي 65
10
من 66 ـــ الي 70
الملخص

The introduction of CBCT is dedicated to imaging the maxillofacial region heralds, a true paradigm shift from 2D to 3D approach to data acquisition and image reconstruction, expanding the role of imaging from diagnosis to image guidance for operative and surgical procedures with the help of third-party applications software. CBCT is capable of providing resolution in images of high diagnostic quality, with short scanning times and radiation dosages up to 15 times lower than those of conventional CT scans. This article provides an review of cone beam computed tomography in relevance to clinical practice and research in dentistry.

11
من 71 ـــ الي 75
12
من 76 ـــ الي 86
الملخص

The veins in man were a subject of study-by 'many' investigators. The previous studies showed that there were structural variations among the human veins. In this study, the saphenous vein was selected from the lower limbs for study in an attempt to correlate the structural variations of the human veins to their sites and their function in the human body.

13
من 87 ـــ الي 93
14